Former Beskid village

FORMER VILLAGE OF BESKIDZKA

Mountain areas, as we already mentioned, they resisted colonization for quite a long time. This was especially true of the period until the end of the 16th century., when agriculture was the basis for the maintenance of the village.

Primary agriculture in the mountains was characterized by a kind of "semi-nomadism": the highlanders lived in permanent places, but the location of the agricultural area was constantly changing. The land for cultivation was obtained by burning the tree stand and undergrowth. So that the trees wither and be burnt out, "exhaustion" was used (or "cerchlen"): a strip of bark around the trunk was chipped, right at the base of the tree. Taking advantage of the fertilizing properties of ash in the incineration site, among the protruding, Unburnt buttocks were sown with grain under a hoe, which has been repeated for so long, until the soil became barren. After a few harvest, the "field" was left and moved to another place, prepared in the same way, the old ones, left fallow, overgrown with hair. Normal grubbing was beyond the technical capabilities of the settlers at the time. Mountain farming was characterized by this type of farming until the end of the Middle Ages, while the methods of making fields using the incandescent method survived in the Beskids until the end of the 18th century.

As settlement develops and new waves of population flow in, the seasonal cultivation of cereals on burnings gave way to agriculture associated with one land and using draft animals for plowing, mainly oxen. Agricultural villages were established in sparsely forested areas in river valleys or on previously burnt-out areas. They usually had a follow-up 15-20 regularly spaced roles (fiefs)^ a strictly established system, and the founder of the village, acting as a commune head, exercised judicial power over the villagers, for which he took part of court sentences. The mayor was also released from most burdens, he had the greatest role, had the right to build a mill, running an inn and others.

Along with the political and administrative changes, significant economic changes also took place in the Beskids. Next to agricultural villages, located in better lands at the foot of the mountains, in the depths of the Beskidy Mountains, the so-called. settlements. Located in worse areas, barren lands, they were located in places after the grubbed up ("Fucked up") Forest, usually in river and stream valleys. Similarly, like arable land, also, the oblongs were usually narrow, long strips of land with an area of ​​several dozen acres, extending from the stream to both opposite slopes of the valley. In many cases, their owners had to use an ax and fire to make a place for a farm in the felling. In the villages of settlements (Vistula*, Jaworzynka*, Mosty* i in.) the population settled, whose main occupation was herding and forest exploitation. In some villages, Wallachians constituted a significant percentage, whose property owners forced them to settle permanently, therefore a specific regime, these villages were governed by the Wallachian law.

As the free lands in the valleys shrink, single shepherd farms began to appear on the slopes, which in time gave rise to numerous hamlets, to this day so characteristic of the Beskid landscape. These hamlets often developed into independent villages over time (like for example. in a certain period Głuchowa * and Strzelma *). Housing estates in mid-forest clearings and the so-called. Łazy and Czerhlach - fields and meadows worked in the forest by the incandescent method, where landless peasants settled. As long as the forests were plentiful, no one defended the highlanders "contributing" to the breaks, clearings and pastures. Feudal sovereignty saw this as a free way of colonizing their estates and creating conditions for the development of agriculture and pastoralism, bringing tangible profits to the court. Only at the beginning of the 18th century, when the wood itself has become a valuable trading item, the freedom of the population to use forests began to be limited.

The constant population growth resulted in the fragmentation of rural households. The division of land forced by the sovereignty led to an increase in serfdom, but at the cost of weakening the viability of smaller farms emerging after the division. W XVIII w. only in exceptional cases did the peasant farm the full land (spanking) counting from 80 do 150 morga (46–86 ha). The cloves fell apart in a similar way. Farmers “sat” on farms with an area of ​​only a dozen or so acres of poor land, and even poorer homeworkers had only a tiny piece of land, too small to feed a family. Rural craftsmen were recruited from among them: chasers, coopers, wheelwright, kowale, weavers etc.. The poorest - bailiffs - did not even have their own home, living in a "chamber" with richer farmers and earning a living, usually casual. The greatest fragmentation occurred in the clearings: clearings divided among a dozen were not exceptional, and later and several dozen co-owners (this situation has survived here and there until now!).