History of the Silesian Beskids – XVI – 18th century

History of the Silesian Beskids – XVI – 18th century

W 1560 r. the Cieszyn prince, Wacław III Adam, handed over a salary to his son, Fryderyk Kazimierz, consisting of separated into a separate administrative unit: Frydka, Frysztat (today's Karviná), Skoczowa and the Stream, along with the surrounding villages; w 1565 r. these areas were enlarged by Bielsko. After Fryderyk's death, to settle huge debts left by the deceased, the goods were sold. State of Bielsko (the city of Bielsko and 11 surrounding villages), acquired in 1572 r. Karol Freiherr von Promnitz, owner of nearby Pszczyna. Already in 1545 r. went on pledge, a w 1573 r. Frydek was sold and the north-west. part of the principality, where it was created 5 small state states: friesian, heavenly (Raj town - now South-East. Karviná district), Orłowo, German-February and Rychwałd.

In the mid-17th century. the Cieszyn Piast family is dying out. 19 VIII 1625 r. the last male heir died, Frederick William. His sister Elizabeth Lucretia managed to keep the principality as the so-called. life imprisonment. After her death (19 V 1653) Cieszyn good, by order of Emperor Ferdinand III, were incarnate in 1654 r. to the royal-Czech Comoros in Wrocław as intimate goods.

The 17th century is an extremely tragic period for the Cieszyn Region. Located at the mouth of the Moravian Gate and at the foot of the strategically important Jabłonkowska Pass *, although not directly covered by the actions, it suffered no less than the areas of the main theaters of the then wars: thirty years old (1618-48), Turkish wars, the uprisings of Gabor Bethlen and Imre Thokoly in Hungary and the "Swedish Deluge" in Poland. W 1620 r. Polish Lisów inhabitants passed through the Skoczów-Stream estates, sent by Sigismund II Vasa to help Habsburg in his struggles with the Protestant union. W 1621 r. in the valley of the Olza * by 70 days were prowling mercenary Neapolitan troops, which burned, among others. Ustron *. The following year, the cursed prince Jan Jerzy from Karniów invaded Cieszyn Silesia, later chased by the imperial army under the command of Colonel Charles Hannibal von Dohny. W 1625 r. took these lands on behalf of the Union of Count. Mansfeld, soon ousted by the Catholic troops of Wallenstein. In years 1645-47 the Duchy of Cieszyn was occupied by the Swedish army belonging to Lennart Torstenson's corps. Duchess Elżbieta Lukrecja fled across the Polish border to Kęty, and the Cieszyn nobility took refuge in Biała. In turn, in 1657 r. the Austrian corps of gen. Hatzfeld to help King Jan Kaziemierz against Sweden. W 1683 r. by Bielsko, Skoczów and Cieszyn marched part of the army of King Jan III Sobieski, under the command of the Crown Hetman Mikołaj Sieniawski, going to the rescue of Vienna.

The use of contributions and quarters by the troops turned into ordinary plunder, rape and murder; The lands near Beskid were ravaged by troops of all kinds as if by a plague of locusts. Let facts prove the scale of the financial burden, that in 1644 r. the expenses for the maintenance of the ramparts only on the Jabłonkowska Pass * amounted to 56 thousand. thalers (more, than two-year income from all princely estates!), and the Turkish war of 1681-83 it cost the Duchy of Cieszyn a huge amount 210 thousand. florins, spent on the maintenance of troops, covering the damage caused by them and the expansion of the entrenchments. The villages located directly in the Olza valley suffered the most *: Bridges *, Nawsie *, Gródek *, Bystrzyca *, Vendryne *, Oldrzychowice and Sibica. When it was joined by a great wave of coincidence of the battered population and subsequent epidemics, The Cieszyn regent informed Komora in Wrocław, that the population is not only incapable of doing serfdom, but for the most part, there are no even conditions for survival.

The economic decline of the Těšín Region was stopped only in the 1820s. It was then that Emperor Charles VI excluded these goods from Wrocław's Comora and handed them over to 1722 r. as a principality to Leopold of Lorraine. However, Leopold's son, Franciszek Stefan, later married Maria Teresa and as a result the lands returned to the Habsburgs. W 1766 r. the daughter of the empress received them as a dowry, Maria Krystyna, by marrying the Saxon prince Albert Kazimierz, son of the Polish king Augustus III. At that time, the princely estate occupied approx. 37% the entire area of ​​Cieszyn Silesia with 31% all of its inhabitants. Out of 8 cities in Cieszyn Silesia were located on the territory of the dukes' estates 4: Cieszyn, Jump, Jabłonków * and Stream.