NATURE PROTECTION

The pioneer of nature conservation in the Polish part of the Silesian Beskids was Dr. Kazimierz Simm (1884-1955), from 1922 r. professor at the University of Life Sciences in Cieszyn, and then the University of Poznań. He was in the twenties, among others. author of the project to create a national park on Barania Góra, he also demanded, to protect the Beskid yew trees, paklony and spring.

Nature protection on both sides of the range is currently based on modern, Polish and Czech laws on nature and environmental protection. Lists of plant and animal species, subject to species protection, they are very similar in Poland and the Czech Republic. Other activities, to protect the disappearing natural face of nature in the mountains between the Vistula * and Olza *, so far they have only manifested themselves in the creation of a number of small nature reserves. Here are their brief characteristics:

- "Tuł" (pow. 15,7 ha, Leszna Górna *, created in 1948 r.) - floristic reserve on the top and north. on the slopes of Mount Tlił *, protecting the natural vegetation of meadow communities with rich herbaceous vegetation, framed with clear thickets of hawthorns, blackthorn and hazel and single oaks. In addition to numerous species of orchids and other rare flowering plants (-+ 1S) it occurs reaching up to 1,5 m beautiful fern - ostrich plume.

- "Zadni Gaj" (pow. 6,4 ha, Cisownica *, created in 1957 r.) - forest reserve, protecting the natural position of approx. 40 copies of yew (about dbh to 40 cm and height up to 11 out) in a mixed forest on the Zagój hill *.

- "City Forest on the Olza River" (pow. 3,2 ha, within the administrative boundaries of Cieszyn, Created inl961.) - floristic reserve, protecting a fragment of a mixed forest on the steep bank of the Olza *, with positions of the spring Cieszyn.

- "The City Forest on the Puńcówka" (pow. 7 ha, within the administrative boundaries of Cieszyn, created in 1961 r.) - floristic reserve, protecting the positions of the spring grasshopper in a natural deciduous stand.

- Bukovec (pow. 7,3 ha, Bukowiec*, created in 1988 r.) - floristic reserve, protecting mountain fragment, boggy peat meadows with rare plant species.

- "Plenisko" (pow. 16,3 ha, Piosek *, created in 1956 r.) - floristic reserve, protecting a fragment of a natural beech, fir and spruce forest on a steep slope, pd.-zach. Kiczor slope *.

- „Ćantoria” (pow. 39,5 ha, Nydek *, created in 1988 r.) - floristic reserve, protecting a fragment of natural beech forest with an admixture of fir and single specimens of yew on a steep hill, pd.-zach. the slope under the ridge of the UK. Czantorii* (—»16C).

- "Velkć pits" (pow. 36,5 ha, Trinec *, created in 1990 r.) - floristic reserve, protecting a fragment of natural mixed deciduous forests with oak, grabem, lipą i in. in a highly urbanized and industrialized area in the Olza valley * just below the glassworks in Trzyniec (between the road and the state border in Ropica).

A number of valuable objects of animate and inanimate nature are protected as natural monuments. These include, on the Polish side, rock outcrops on Kobyla * and Kiczory * and numerous old trees, m.in. 400-summer oak in Bażanowice *, 250-annual cis, 5 clones, beech and elm in Cisownica *, 150-annual cis, as well as a 400-year-old: oak and linden in Ustroń *, 280-summer linden in the center of Istebna *, 2 fir trees (220 years, ok. 3,7 m in circumference) in Istebna on Bystre *, 200-summer linden and slightly older yew in Istebna in Olecki, 400-summer linden in Leszna Górna *, 300-summer oak in the center of the Vistula * i 2 fir trees (220 years, ok. 4 m in circumference) on the slope of Kiczor * in Wisła Łabajów *.

On the Czech side, natural monuments are included 2 valuable natural areas, i.e.: Filipka (1,1 ha, created in 1990 r.) - encompassing a rich stand of common juniper, rare in the Beskids,, luminous forest to the S. slopes of Filipki * and "Rohovec" peak (29,5 ha, created in 1992 r.) - covering a fragment of forests on the slopes of the limiting ridge from the south. valley pot. Chert*, constituting a biotope of forest ants. In addition, it should be mentioned here, among others. field elm (ok. 350 years, show. 28 m, circuit 6,8 m) in Bukowiec *, pedunculate oak (show. 20 m, circuit 4,5 m) in Bystrzyca * and the field elm in Český Puńców (Trinec *).

Nowadays, in order to ensure proper protection of these fragments of the Silesian Beskids, which still retained their natural character, in Poland, it is planned to create a Landscape Park of the Silesian Beskids, covering 40-47 thousand. ha of land from the borders of Bielsko-Biała to the north. after Istebna * to the south., still surrounded by a buffer zone of the area. ok. 20 thousand. ha. At the same time in December 1994 r. in the state forests of the Beskid Śl. one of the 7 in Poland, Forest Promotion Complexes, whose task is, among others. restoration of the natural values ​​of forests, and then integrating the goals of rational forest management and nature conservation.

Unfortunately, The Silesian Beskid is one of the most ecologically endangered areas in the Polish mountains. Air pollution with poisonous gases and dust (and to a lesser extent soil and surface water pollution) in Ustroń *, Wisła * or Jabłonków * is slowly approaching the level recorded in large urban agglomerations. Forests are dying from "acid rain". Situated above 800 m above sea level, the stands will directly "brush out" any pollutants from the air. Fir is especially sensitive to them, which is dying in the Silesian Beskids faster than any other species. The cause of this environmental degradation is the fumes and sewage from thousands of homes and resorts, motor vehicle exhaust fumes, but the main "polluter" are the large centers of heavy industry in the vicinity: The Rybnik Coal District and the Ostrava-Karviná Basin, and the steelworks in Trzyniec (in the Czech republic).

However, the first signs of change appeared here: in November 1990 r. the government of the then Czecho-Slovakia decided to definitively suspend the construction of a large coking plant in Stonawa near Cieszyn, right on the Polish border. Coking Plant, which - according to specialists - was supposed to bring destruction to the nature of the Silesian Beskids in a short time…