The relief

The youngest geological formation in the area in question are the Quaternary formations, formed in the last million years. In larger valleys, they took the form of accumulation covers with a thickness of up to approx. 10 m, composed of rubble, pebbles and gravel of local origin, on which dusty and sandy loams lie; River terraces are made of this material. At the foot of the Beskids, in these rocks we can also find materials brought by the Scandinavian ice sheet during the glacial period, farthest south. erratic boulders. On the other hand, the plain stretching between Nierodzimiem, Ustroń * and Goleszów * are the flat surfaces of the alluvial cone. It was built by the pre-Vistula and streams flowing from the north. the slopes of Czantoria * during the so-called. Krakow stage of glaciation (ok. 1,1 min years ago), when the ice sheet reached the foothills of the Beskids and blocked the outflow of waters to the north. Gravel building an alluvial cone, consisting of pebbles of flysch rocks, here they reach a thickness of up to 25 m and are covered with a thin layer of clay. After the ice sheet receded, the pre-Vistula cut open the all-over cone, by applying younger deposits, on which is located, among others. Ustron *.

W pn. parts of the Silesian Beskids, the Godul mantle is cut in several places by transverse faults. The rocks broken along the fault lines are less resistant to erosion and therefore river valleys have developed in the fault lines., Vistula valley * on the section from Ustroń Polany * to Skoczów *. East. the wings of these faults are shifted in relation to the west wings. by pn. As a result, at the mouth of this valley on the side of its right slopes (Lipowski Groń i Równica) the shore of the Silesian Beskids extends further north., than on the side of the left slopes (Mł. and the UK. Czantoria*).

The orogenic movements forming the Silesian Beskids proceeded in several stages. Periods of upheaval, in which mainly river erosion was activated, cutting through the whole massif deeply, were separated by periods of stagnation, during which the destruction and leveling of the mountains and the widening of valleys dominated - that is, the "aging" of the terrain. The remains of this multi-stage development of sculptures are the well-preserved in the Silesian Beskids, the so-called. horizontal - sequences of dorsal or slope flattenings, being fragments of the former equalization surfaces.

The carving processes continue to this day. The most important factor for shaping the relief of the Silesian Beskids is the erosion of flowing waters. Depth erosion deepens the valleys and cuts weathered covers on the slopes. The bottom of the trough valleys are cut with V-shaped valleys. Lateral erosion of rivers, flooded by flood waters, undercuts the banks and leads to the formation of landslides. Much larger landslides occur on steep slopes, in the source funnels of streams. They are of a "package" character: large sections of the slope settle and slide down completely, creating numerous steps separated by clefts. The most common are rubble-type landslides, in which rock and weathered material are mixed. On slopes falling in line with the fall of the layers, sliding landslides are frequent: the rock material slides down the water-swollen slate layers. On gentle slopes, overgrown with vegetation, more than once we observe the slow ones (1-10 cm per year) descending weathered cover, as evidenced by e.g.. tree trunks bent into pipes at the base.